Starlette allows you to install custom exception handlers to deal with how you return responses when errors or handled exceptions occur.

from starlette.applications import Starlette
from starlette.responses import HTMLResponse

HTML_404_PAGE = ...
HTML_500_PAGE = ...

async def not_found(request, exc):
    return HTMLResponse(content=HTML_404_PAGE, status_code=exc.status_code)

async def server_error(request, exc):
    return HTMLResponse(content=HTML_500_PAGE, status_code=exc.status_code)

exception_handlers = {
    404: not_found,
    500: server_error

app = Starlette(routes=routes, exception_handlers=exception_handlers)

If debug is enabled and an error occurs, then instead of using the installed 500 handler, Starlette will respond with a traceback response.

app = Starlette(debug=True, routes=routes, exception_handlers=exception_handlers)

As well as registering handlers for specific status codes, you can also register handlers for classes of exceptions.

In particular you might want to override how the built-in HTTPException class is handled. For example, to use JSON style responses:

async def http_exception(request, exc):
    return JSONResponse({"detail": exc.detail}, status_code=exc.status_code)

exception_handlers = {
    HTTPException: http_exception

Errors and handled exceptions

It is important to differentiate between handled exceptions and errors.

Handled exceptions do not represent error cases. They are coerced into appropriate HTTP responses, which are then sent through the standard middleware stack. By default the HTTPException class is used to manage any handled exceptions.

Errors are any other exception that occurs within the application. These cases should bubble through the entire middleware stack as exceptions. Any error logging middleware should ensure that it re-raises the exception all the way up to the server.

In order to deal with this behaviour correctly, the middleware stack of a Starlette application is configured like this:

  • ServerErrorMiddleware - Returns 500 responses when server errors occur.
  • Installed middleware
  • ExceptionMiddleware - Deals with handled exceptions, and returns responses.
  • Router
  • Endpoints


The HTTPException class provides a base class that you can use for any handled exceptions. The ExceptionMiddleware implementation defaults to returning plain-text HTTP responses for any HTTPException.

  • HTTPException(status_code, detail=None)

You should only raise HTTPException inside routing or endpoints. Middleware classes should instead just return appropriate responses directly.